The paper reviews some of the disadvantages and merits of stone types or other products used on the outside of the building
Features artificial stone nano cement plast for facade and decoration inside and outside the building:
*High variability (variety in color with the ability to execute various designs and custom)
*Lightweight than natural stones (with a specific weight of 2200 kg per square meter, 1200 to 1700 kilograms per cubic meter and less) which makes the building less weight and consequently reduce the impact of the earthquake on the building
*Capacity of absorbing water less than 2/2 percent (in ceramic and tile)
*No Limit in the dimensions of production or installation, such as natural stone
*Endurance (tensile strength and pressure) higher than natural stones
*More adhesion with cementitious materials. (this means that, unlike natural stones, due to atmospheric factors and non-adhesion, it does not separate from the body of the building over time. one of the most important disadvantages of natural stones is the gradual separation from the body of the building)
*High resistance to atmospheric factors and color resistance in front of the sun's radiation
*High resistance to frost (Up to 50 ° C below zero)
*High temperature resistance (up to 500 cycles)
*Strength and high coherence
*Easy installation and effortlessly and...1.No intrusion of darkness in the internal tissue of artificial stone cement plast:
In natural stones, it has been shiny when installed and it has a special effect. this is because of the use of shiny resins at the surface of natural stones. due to atmospheric factors such as sunlight and acid rain and... after a while, the resins will defunct and the stone will darken. after the loss of shiny resins, water absorption of natural stone has increased and because of the surface water absorption, soil and contamination on the surface in the stone penetrated and the stone will get darker over time. along with dirt and the dust penetrated in the stone, in continuous and discontinuous cavities in stone tissue, bacteria, algae and fungi have also infiltrated and over time, these bacteria and fungi grow, after their death, creation of greens and blackness appears in the texture of the stones. due to very low water absorption (less than 3%), superficial and deep molecular densities and the absence of continuous and discontinuous cavities in artificial stone internal tissue, artificial stones have been excluded from the influence of darkness in tissue inside stone
2.More adhesion strength of artificial facade stone cement plast with building materials:
Due to the non-similar of the coefficient of expansion and contraction of natural stones and concrete and slurry behind the work, over time, the stone has been removed from the body and this will cause damage and the appearance of ugliness in the building. to solve these problems in natural stones, solutions are presented:
-Create a scope behind the stone, that was useless because of rust over time and after a while, the stone is removed from the body.-Screw roll up of stone from the surface, this case also gives an ugly appearance to the building and is not welcomed by consumers.
Artificial stones due to concrete base, has a more coordination with building materials and has more adhesion.
3.Lower price of artificial stones cement plast in the consumer market than natural stones:
Natural stones are available to consumers in the country at very high prices. for example, poor-quality stones such as travertine, previously known as unfavorable stones, now it has been used with cutting, sub, polishing and putty in the body of most buildings and is trading at a very high price in the Iranian market.
4.Lower weight of artificial stone cement plast than natural stone and other building facade:
Density of natural stones 2800-2700 kg / m ^ 3
Density of travertine stones 2500 kg / m ^ 3
Concrete with density 2400-2300 kg / m ^ 3
Density of artificial stone in mode:
Normal 2200 kg / m ^ 3
Semi-lightweight 1700-1500 kg / m ^ 3
The ultra-lightweight is 1100-500 kg / m ^ 3, which will be much lighter than natural stones
5.Artificial Stone Cement plast Resistance against Frost and Heat:
In natural stone and concrete due to high water absorption and water penetration in the internal tissue of stone and concrete, in the cold weather, the penetrated water in the continuous and discontinuous holes is frozen and with freezing the water in their tissues and increasing the volume of ice, natural stone and concrete (street tables and mosaics, etc.) will crack and fracture. therefore, the use of stones with high water absorption in cold regions is not recommended. artificial stones due to very low water absorption, it has the ability to withstand frost (up to 50 degrees below zero). also, natural stone, ceramic tile and concrete, due to atmospheric agents and temperature changes (expansion and contraction), will have cracks in the crust and texture or fracture, but artificial rocks with cold tolerance up to minus 50 degrees centigrade as well as temperature tolerance up to a positive temperature of 350 centigrade and tolerant of 500 different temperature cycles due to the cold and also high temperature and also temperature tolerances will not cause such problems.
6.Sound and thermal insulation of artificial stone nano cement plast:
stones in mass from 1100 to 500 kg / m ^ 3, In addition to reducing the weight of the building, due to the use of special materials and compounds, thermal insulation and sound insulation in the body of building and will save energy.
They will also be insulated against sound (Up to 40%)
7.Lower erosion of artificial stone facade relative to natural stones:
-Diversity in layout, color and dimensions
-Bending strength higher than concrete and natural stones
-Simulation of natural stone such as the types of marble and granite and... can be named.
Advantages and disadvantages of brick facades in the building facade:
Acousticinsulation and heat: Brick facade due to lack of insulation, heat and sound it completely passes through brick facade and in this sense, it is a component of traditional material with a waste of energy
economic efficiency: Brick facade, economically compared to other traditional materials for the facade, in terms of economically very good but because it does not have other benefits (which is referred to below) it can't be selected as an appropriate item for the facade.
Durability: The durability of the brick facade is due to being produced in various dimensions and because the clay is a major component of it, can't have the durability and long life and Over time, due to atmospheric conditions, its strength decreases and it goes to erosion.
layout diversity: layout diversity of facade brick linked to a few simple designs and fixed and unchanged and it can't be used continuously for the present and future.
Sediment: Brick facades due to its Non-smooth surface as well as its deposition because of the ingredients, they are classified as materials that absorb suspended particles in the air which its repair is very costly
Run speed: Run time in bricks facade due to the use of cement mortar and water and time to be dry it should be considered, Also, filler between bricks has a low run speed and time is up.
Weight: The weight of the facade brick, as mentioned in the previous parameter, because of lightness raw materials, it has relatively low weight but at the same time, compared with new materials creates a lot of extra load.
Color variation: The color variation in a brick facade, like its design, it is unique in several colors and maneuverability and there is not much flexibility
fire: By accepting that, doesn't lose his shape in the face of a fire but it does not have any effect on ignition or fire control
The advantages and disadvantages of the glass facade outside the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat: The glass facade does not have any thermal and sound insulation, and because of its low transparency and thickness it also helps to waste it. in the case of used double-glazed glass facades, it can be considered as a sound and thermal insulator, in this case, shouldn't ignore the high cost
economic efficiency: The cost-effectiveness of the glass facade compared to other conventional facade in the construction industry is also profitable and vice versa. the high cost of glass facade, in this respect, the cost of double glazed of the glass facade is very high and its monetary discussion is not acceptable for building builders
Durability: The durability of the glass facade is low, because it is fragile in the face of impact and weather conditions. and also during an earthquake, it is very dangerous because of the sharp shaking and breaking of the glass and falling it from the height and can cause irreparable damage
Variety layout: Design and special glass models, because of its single form, the glass is placed in a category of materials that is not diversified and it can't be used for the beauty of the building in terms of design variation.
Taking Deposition: Glass facade due to its transparency, it absorbs particles in the air. And while it has a beautiful facade, due to the absorption of particles in the air, it quickly loses its beauty.
Run speed: Runtime in the installation of glass facade, in proportion to other new materials in the facade of the building, almost equal and in between the facades and has good run speed
Weight: Glass facade in the building, reduces the load extra compared to traditional materials as well as new materials and in the group of facades with a low weight, which this item is one of the key values of the glass facade.
Color variation: The glass facade does not have a good color variation and therefore, it is not competitive with other modern facades.
Fire: Fire is one of the factors that threatens the glass facade because the fire causes the expansion and contraction of the glass and this action causes the glass to break and crush and can cause irreparable damage and due to this weakness, the glass facade could not have a stable position for the building's façade
Advantages and disadvantages of granite and marble on the outside of the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat: This facade, due to the passage of sound and heat, not any acoustic and thermal insulation and will waste the energy
economic efficiency: Granite is not economical due to the high price of stone, as well as the cost of installing it. of course, considering its quality and beauty, its price can be overlooked to some extent but due to the lack of other items, it can't be used 100%.
Durability: Granite facade is of high durability but it should be kept in mind that under different climatic conditions, the adhesion of the stone is not done well and after a short time stones come out of their installation
Plan variety: Granite is in a relatively good position in terms of variety. but, considering the market's need and diversity, it can't be considered a diverse stone.
Sediment:stones generally due to their surface and being in nature, has suitable for sediment and airborne particles are absorbed into their surface and after a short time, they lose their original color and design, which requires washing to retrieve
Run speed:The speed of the implementation of the granite stone is due to the mortar operation behind the stone and the time taken to dry the mortar, will take a long time
Weight: Nowadays, the extra burden on the building is one of the most important factors, and you can't overlook the weight of granite and mortar on the building
Color variation: Granite stone according to the existing mines in the country as well as polishing tools, has a fairly strong color variation, which can be used in this regard in the view.
Fire: Fire is one of the categories in which granite has no effect on its containment or flame retardation. and in this case, you can't rely on this product in the facade.
Advantages and disadvantages of stone travertine on the outside of the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat: Travertine facade, like other stones, because of the passage of heat and sound, in no way is acoustic and thermal insulation and contributed greatly to the loss of energy
economic efficiency: Travertine stone facade, considering the massive mines in the country, in terms of price is more suitable and it is relatively affordable in this regard, however, other factors that is one of the weak points of this stone, prevents permanent use of this product.
Durability: Travertine is one of the most durable stones in the market which has a high resistance.
Plan variety: This stone does not have a particular design and this is one of the main weaknesses of this product.
Sediment: Travertine sedimentation is very high due to its rough surface, so that it loses its color and quality in a short time after installation and the color of the facade is completely changed.
Speed run:Travertine on the speed of doing work, like other stones, due to the use of the mortar behind it and the time taken to dry the mortar, speed work up a lot of time increases and due to porosity on its surface, slurry is transferred to the surface, that much time to wipe it should be spent. also because of its large dimensions, requires a lot of cutting.
Weight: Travertine weight is relatively low compared to other stones, but in any case it creates a lot of load, that should not ignore this problem.
Color variation: Travertine has a low color variation, which is very low relative to the market need and can't respond to customer tastes.
Fire:This stone, like other traditional facades, has no effect on flames or fire extinguishing, and so it can't be considered as a guarantee of fire control.
Advantages and disadvantages of using ceramic on the outside of the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat: One of the disadvantages of ceramic facades is that the insulation is not cold, heat, and sound.and also ceramic facades are also not used in crowded places due to the strong reflection of light.
economic efficiency: Given the high price of stone and the burden that stone imposes on the building, for building facades in some countries, the use of ceramic has become widespread.
Durability: Due to the origin of clay in ceramic, it does not have strong adhesion to cement materials and atmospheric changes cause the shrinkage and expansion and its separation from the body of the building. it also develops cracks and fractures with the smallest temperature fluctuations.
Plan variety: These facades, given the manageable design, can offer their beauty to the viewer.
Sediment:The ceramic facades absorb suspended particles in the air.
Speed run:This facade has a fairly good run speed.
Weight:The ceramic facade has solved the weight problem by about a quarter of the weight of the stone, but the continuity problem of ceramic and facade, not resolved (except in a few cases)
Color variation:The ceramic facade has a high color variation
Advantages and disadvantages of washing facade (mineral) on the outside of the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat:The cement facade is not exposed to thermal insulation properties compared to the new external facade of the building and because the washed facade acts as a sponge, it directs moisture to the inside.
economic efficiency:This facade is cheaper than natural stones, but compared to some of the new facade coating, in terms of cost, has no ability to competed.
Durability:This facade will lose its beauty in the short run due to acid rain.
Plan variety: BAYRAMIM facade, despite its advantages, it has not been welcomed by the community of engineers and contractors because this facade doesn't match the Iranian flavors.
Speed run: Execution of washed facade, very slow and time consuming.
Weight:Its heavy weight compared to new coatings building facade and thus increase the excess load of the building.
Color variation: Due to the presence of white cement, there is not much variation in color.
Disadvantages and benefits of using composite facade - composite panel on outside facade of the building:
Acousticinsulation and heat:This facade can't be definitely considered as sound insulation and heat insulation, and even because of the metallicity and lack of insulating layer, and it will waste energy
economic efficiency:Composite facade economically, is not suitable, because in addition to running the chassis under it, the installation of an aluminum sheet and its middle layer, which is made of polyethylene material, is included. that's why its price is high due to the above description
Durability:Due to the very low thickness of the aluminum sheet, the composite facade has lost its original form of wind and storm due to adverse weather conditions and after a short while, it becomes deformed, because of this, it does not have much durability and endurance.
Plan variety:The variety of composite layout is relatively good and this can be considered as an appropriate facade for the building.
Sediment: Sedimentation of composite facade is almost high because the facade was made of aluminum, this is due to the absorption of particulates in the air from the problems encountered in this facade. outside of Iran, this facade produced with static colors, which its properties are non-absorption of suspended particles and because of not being economical, this painting method is not carried out in Iran.
Speed run:The installation and implementation of composite facades is very good and will be implemented in a short time, which this is one of the most important benefits of composite facade.
Weight:The low weight of the composite, which causes a little extra load in the building, is another advantage of the composite facade.
Color variation:Composite facade has a good color scheme that can be used to create the building facade beautiful.
Fire:Low resistance to fire is one of its disadvantages. Since the aluminum sheet in front of the fire, it is deformed and there is no help in controlling the fire as well as the polyethylene materials in the composite facade, it helps to ignite the fire and because of this, this facade is exposed to fire without resistance
Advantages and disadvantages of using paint and context on the outside of the building:
Acoustic insulation and heat:No sound insulation and heat.
economic efficiency:Economically, it is economical.
Durability:The durability of the context façade is very low due to its poorly absorbed material and it will be removed from its shape in the shortest time after installation, and this will make the facade ugly.
Plan variety: It has a great variety of designs.
Sediment:getting layered, infiltration of darkness, dirty effects, and the growth of mushrooms and algae on its surface, its biggest disadvantages of this.
Speed run: it has a high speed run
Weight:not has a much weight
Color variation: It has a good color variation.
Fire: The context facade, due to the flammable materials used in its construction, And in this way it helps fire